Source Influence on Emission Pathways and Ambient PM 2.5 Pollution over India (2015–2050)
Scenarios of sectoral emissions of fine particulate matter and its precursors were developed and evaluated for 2015–2050, under specific pathways of diffusion of cleaner and more energy-efficient technologies.
The authors find that PM2.5 pollution is a pan-India problem, with a regional character, and is not limited to urban areas or megacities. Under present-day emissions, levels in most states exceeded the national PM2.5 annual standard. Sources related to human activities were responsible for the largest proportion of the present-day population exposure to PM2.5 in India. Effective mitigation of future air pollution in India requires, according to the authors, adoption of aggressive prospective regulation, currently not formulated, for a three-pronged switch away from (i) biomass-fuelled traditional technologies, (ii) industrial coal-burning and (iii) open burning of agricultural residue. Future air pollution is dominated by industrial process emissions, reflecting larger expansion in industrial, rather than residential energy demand. However, even under the most active reductions envisioned, the 2050 mean exposure, excluding any impact from windblown mineral dust, is estimated to be nearly 3 times higher than the WHO Air Quality Guideline.
Author(s) : Chandra Venkataraman , Michael Brauer, Kushal Tibrewal et al. , Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics